Publications
Living Under the Rule of Corruption (Part 10)
Monday, 25 August 2008 , Written by « CSD »   
 CHAPTER 8

Active strategies

As illustrated earlier in Part Two, both ordinary citizens and civil servants create stereotypes of the bureaucrat as corrupt. Furthermore, citizens and civil servants agree that corrupt practices are a problem in the public sector. The discrepancy between ordinary citizens and civil servants is therefore not whether corrupt practices take place or not but rather what their options are to restrict the practice.

 

Chapter Eight presents an analysis of active strategies in response to corrupt practices in the local bureaucracy and institutions. The chapter has four main findings. First, civil servants show more comfort in arguing with other civil servants on corrupt payment than do ordinary citizens. Second, the patronage system has a dualistic function which makes resistance possible and hinders resistance at the same time, resulting in some citizens choosing not to work as civil servants. Third, the habitual use of informal procedures is a common way to achieve success within the bureaucracy. Fourth, creating networks is the primary strategy to either avoid or reduce the amount of the corrupt payment, leaving the poor with limited access to services.

 

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Living Under the Rule of Corruption (Part 09)
Sunday, 24 August 2008 , Written by « CSD »   
 CHAPTER 7

Ordinary citizens’ strategies

 

here is no doubt that citizens react to corrupt practices, as illustrated in Part Two. But one can ask whether there are conscious strategies behind the reactions and whether these can be viewed as resistance or merely coping mechanisms.

 

Chapter Seven is based on the Wan Family’s and Mr. Sokha’s stories about encountering civil servants in the local bureaucracy and institutions without having a patron to ensure security. The chapter has four main findings. First, lack of information combined with threats makes exploitation easy. Second, the Wan Family and Mr. Sokha feel they have limited possibilities of action against corrupt practices. However, there are small signs of resistance with distinctly moral overtones. Third, incentives to improve livelihood and growth are hindered by corrupt payments and lack of well-functioning infrastructure like markets and an enforced law-system. Fourth, active resistance is strangled in the culturally constructed power structure.

 

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Policy Paper and Principles on Anti-Corruption
Thursday, 21 August 2008 , Written by « OECD »   
 ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION

AND DEVELOPMENT

 

The OECD is a unique forum where the governments of 30 democracies work together to address the economic, social and environmental challenges of globalisation.The OECD is also at the forefront of efforts to understand and to help governments respond to new developments and concerns, such as corporate governance, the information economy and the challenges of an ageing population. The Organisation provides a setting where governments can compare policy experiences, seek answers to common problems, identify good practice and work to co-ordinate domestic and international policies.

 

The OECD member countries are: Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Korea, Luxembourg, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, the Slovak Republic, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, the United Kingdom and the United States.The Commission of the European Communities takes part in the work of the OECD. OECD Publishing disseminates widely the results of the Organisation’s statistics gathering and research on economic, social and environmental issues, as well as the conventions, guidelines and standards agreed by its members.

 

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